The ultimate A-Z guide to generative AI terminology

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March 28th, 2023
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A comprehensive AI glossary designed specifically for founders, makers, product people, and marketers — with or without a technical background.

Artificial intelligence (AI) has rapidly evolved over the past decade, paving the way for an ever-increasing array of applications and innovations. As a result, a wealth of complex terms, concepts, and technologies has emerged, making it challenging for even the most technically-minded individuals to keep up with the latest advancements.


To facilitate a deeper understanding of generative AI and its various components, this comprehensive A-Z glossary has been designed specifically for founders, makers, product people, and marketers with or without a technical background.


This glossary aims to cover essential terminology associated with generative AI, offering concise and informative explanations that cater to both novice and experienced professionals. Each term is explained in two ways: 1) in simple terms that a 16-year-old could understand, and 2) in a more technical manner suitable for software developers. By exploring the intricacies of these terms, you'll gain a solid foundation to navigate the vast and rapidly evolving AI landscape confidently.


A. Algorithms and Artificial Intelligence


Algorithm



  • 16-year-old: An algorithm is like a recipe, a set of instructions that tells a computer what to do to solve a problem or make a decision.

  • Developer: An algorithm is a step-by-step procedure for calculations that takes inputs, processes them, and produces an output, often used for problem-solving and data manipulation in computer programming.


(Citation: Cormen, T. H., Leiserson, C. E., Rivest, R. L., & Stein, C. (2009). Introduction to algorithms. MIT press.)


Artificial Intelligence (AI)



  • 16-year-old: AI is when a computer can do things that usually require human intelligence, like playing games, recognizing faces, or having a conversation.

  • Developer: AI refers to the development of computer systems capable of performing tasks that typically require human cognitive functions, using machine learning, natural language processing, and other techniques.


(Citation: Russell, S., & Norvig, P. (2016). Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach. Pearson.)


B. Brains and Backpropagation


Artificial Neural Network (ANN)



  • 16-year-old: ANNs are computer systems inspired by how our brain works. They help computers learn from data, recognize patterns, and make decisions.

  • Developer: ANNs are computational models designed to process and analyze data by mimicking the human brain's structure and function, consisting of interconnected nodes or neurons.


(Citation: Goodfellow, I., Bengio, Y., & Courville, A. (2016). Deep Learning. MIT Press.)


Backpropagation



  • 16-year-old: Backpropagation is like getting feedback on a test. It helps AI systems learn by adjusting their predictions based on how close they were to the right answer.

  • Developer: Backpropagation is a supervised learning algorithm for training multi-layer artificial neural networks, utilizing gradient descent to minimize the error between predicted and actual outputs by adjusting weights and biases.


(Citation: Rumelhart, D. E., Hinton, G. E., & Williams, R. J. (1986). Learning representations by back-propagating errors. Nature, 323(6088), 533-536.)


C. Chatbots and Computer Vision


Chatbot



  • 16-year-old: A chatbot is a computer program you can talk to through messaging apps, websites, or other platforms. They can help answer questions, give recommendations, or just chat for fun.

  • Developer: A chatbot is an AI-powered software application designed to engage in human-like conversations through text or voice interfaces, leveraging natural language processing and machine learning techniques.


(Citation: Shawar, B. A., & Atwell, E. (2007). Chatbots: Are they really useful?. LDV Forum, 22(1), 29-49.)


Computer Vision



  • 16-year-old: Computer vision is when a computer can understand and interpret images or videos, like recognizing faces or objects.

  • Developer: Computer vision is a field of AI that focuses on enabling computers to process, analyze, and interpret visual information from the world in the form of images or videos.


(Citation: Szeliski, R. (2010). Computer vision: algorithms and applications. Springer Science & Business Media.)



D. Deep Learning and Discriminators


Deep Learning



  • 16-year-old: Deep learning is a type of AI that uses complex networks, like our brain, to learn from large amounts of data and make decisions without being explicitly programmed.

  • Developer: Deep learning is a subfield of machine learning employing deep neural networks with multiple hidden layers to process and analyze vast datasets, enabling the system to learn complex patterns and representations.


(Citation: Goodfellow, I., Bengio, Y., & Courville, A. (2016). Deep Learning. MIT Press.)


Discriminator (in GANs)



  • 16-year-old: In a GAN, the discriminator is the part that judges whether something created by the generator is real or fake, helping both parts improve over time.

  • Developer: In a GAN, the discriminator is a neural network trained to distinguish between real and generated data, providing feedback to the generator to improve its output quality.


(Citation: Goodfellow, I., Pouget-Abadie, J., Mirza, M., Xu, B., Warde-Farley, D., Ozair, S., ... & Bengio, Y. (2014). Generative adversarial nets. Advances in neural information processing systems, 2672-2680.)


E. Explainable AI and Error Metrics


Explainable AI (XAI)



  • 16-year-old: XAI is a type of AI that helps us understand how AI systems make decisions, making them more transparent and trustworthy.

  • Developer: XAI is a subfield of AI focused on developing techniques and models that provide human-interpretable explanations for their decisions and predictions, promoting transparency, accountability, and trust.


(Citation: Arrieta, A. B., Díaz-Rodríguez, N., Del Ser, J., Bennetot, A., Tabik, S., Barbado, A., ... & Herrera, F. (2020). Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI): Concepts, taxonomies, opportunities and challenges toward responsible AI. Information Fusion, 58, 82-115.)


Error Metrics



  • 16-year-old: Error metrics are measurements used to see how well an AI system is performing, like calculating how many mistakes it makes compared to the correct answers.

  • Developer: Error metrics are quantitative measures used to assess the performance of a machine learning model, such as mean squared error, accuracy, precision, recall, or F1 score, depending on the specific problem.


(Citation: Sokolova, M., & Lapalme, G. (2009). A systematic analysis of performance measures for classification tasks. Information Processing & Management, 45(4), 427-437.)


F. Feature Engineering and Fine-tuning


Feature Engineering



  • 16-year-old: Feature engineering is like choosing the right information to solve a problem. In AI, it's about selecting or transforming the most important data so the system can learn better.

  • Developer: Feature engineering is the process of selecting, transforming, or creating relevant features from raw data to improve the performance of machine learning models.


(Citation: Guyon, I., & Elisseeff, A. (2003). An introduction to variable and feature selection. Journal of machine learning research, 3(Mar), 1157-1182.)


Fine-tuning



  • 16-year-old: Fine-tuning is like practicing a skill to get better at it. In AI, it's about adjusting the system's settings to improve its performance on a specific task.

  • Developer: Fine-tuning is the process of adjusting the hyperparameters or pre-trained weights of a machine learning model to optimize its performance on a specific task or dataset.


(Citation: Yosinski, J., Clune, J., Bengio, Y., & Lipson, H. (2014). How transferable are features in deep neural networks?. Advances in neural information processing systems, 3320-3328.)



G. Generative Adversarial Networks and Gradient Descent


Generative Adversarial Network (GAN)



  • 16-year-old: GANs are like an art contest between a creator and a judge. The creator makes art, and the judge decides if it's real or fake, helping both get better over time.

  • Developer: GANs are a class of machine learning models consisting of a generator and discriminator, competing against each other in a zero-sum game, resulting in the generator producing realistic outputs.


(Citation: Goodfellow, I., Pouget-Abadie, J., Mirza, M., Xu, B., Warde-Farley, D., Ozair, S., ... & Bengio, Y. (2014). Generative adversarial nets. Advances in neural information processing systems, 2672-2680.)


Gradient Descent



  • 16-year-old: Gradient descent is like finding the lowest point in a valley. It's a way for AI systems to learn by adjusting their guesses to minimize mistakes.

  • Developer: Gradient descent is an optimization algorithm used to minimize a function iteratively by moving in the direction of the steepest descent, commonly used in machine learning to adjust model parameters.


(Citation: Ruder, S. (2016). An overview of gradient descent optimization algorithms.)


H. Hyperparameters and Heuristics


Hyperparameter



  • 16-year-old: Hyperparameters are like the settings on a video game that you can adjust to make it more challenging or easier. In AI, they're the settings that control how the system learns and performs.

  • Developer: Hyperparameters are external configuration values that control the learning process of a machine learning model, not learned during training, and often tuned to optimize model performance.


(Citation: Hutter, F., Kotthoff, L., & Vanschoren, J. (Eds.). (2019). Automated Machine Learning: Methods, Systems, Challenges. Springer Nature.)


Heuristic



  • 16-year-old: A heuristic is like a rule of thumb or a shortcut to help solve a problem more quickly, even if it's not always the best or most accurate solution.

  • Developer: A heuristic is a problem-solving technique that employs practical approaches or rules of thumb to find approximate solutions, trading optimality and accuracy for speed and computational efficiency.


(Citation: Pearl, J. (1984). Heuristics: intelligent search strategies for computer problem solving. Addison-Wesley.)


I. Image Generation, Recognition, and Inference


Image Generation



  • 16-year-old: Image generation is when a computer can create new images that look realistic, like drawing a picture of a person who doesn't exist or creating new artwork inspired by famous artists.

  • Developer: Image generation is the process of using AI algorithms, particularly generative models such as GANs, to synthesize realistic and novel visual content, including objects, scenes, or artistic styles.


(Citation: Goodfellow, I., Pouget-Abadie, J., Mirza, M., Xu, B., Warde-Farley, D., Ozair, S., ... & Bengio, Y. (2014). Generative adversarial nets. Advances in neural information processing systems, 2672-2680.)


Image Recognition



  • 16-year-old: Image recognition is when a computer can identify objects, people, or places in a picture, like recognizing your face in a photo or understanding what's happening in an image.

  • Developer: Image recognition is the process of using AI algorithms, particularly computer vision and deep learning techniques, to identify and classify objects, scenes, or activities in digital images.


(Citation: Krizhevsky, A., Sutskever, I., & Hinton, G. E. (2012). Imagenet classification with deep convolutional neural networks. Advances in neural information processing systems, 1097-1105.)


Inference



  • 16-year-old: Inference is when an AI system uses what it has learned to make predictions or decisions, like guessing what an object in a picture is or answering a question based on its knowledge.

  • Developer: Inference is the process of applying a trained machine learning model to new, unseen data to generate predictions, classifications, or other desired outputs.


(Citation: Goodfellow, I., Bengio, Y., & Courville, A. (2016). Deep Learning. MIT Press.)


J. Joint Probability, Jupyter Notebook, and JSON


Joint Probability



  • 16-year-old: Joint probability is the chance that two or more events happen at the same time. In AI, it helps understand the relationships between different pieces of data or events.

  • Developer: Joint probability is the probability of two or more events occurring simultaneously, represented mathematically as P(A∩B) or P(A, B). In AI, it's used in probabilistic models to capture dependencies between variables.


(Citation: Feller, W. (1968). An Introduction to Probability Theory and Its Applications (Vol. 1). John Wiley & Sons.)


Jupyter Notebook



  • 16-year-old: Jupyter Notebook is like an online notebook where you can write and run code, add text, and share it with others. It's a popular tool for AI researchers and developers.

  • Developer: Jupyter Notebook is an open-source web application that enables users to create and share documents containing live code, equations, visualizations, and narrative text. It's widely used in AI research and development for experimentation and collaboration.


(Citation: Kluyver, T., Ragan-Kelley, B., Pérez, F., Granger, B., Bussonnier, M., Frederic, J., ... & Willing, C. (2016). Jupyter Notebooks—a publishing format for reproducible computational workflows. In ELPUB (pp. 87-90).)


JSON



  • 16-year-old: JSON is a way of organizing and sharing data that's easy to read for both humans and computers. It's often used to send data between AI systems and websites or apps.

  • Developer: JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) is a lightweight data-interchange format that is easy to read and write for humans and easy to parse and generate for machines. In AI, it's commonly used for data exchange between APIs, applications, and machine learning models.


(Citation: Crockford, D. (2006). The application/json Media Type for JavaScript Object Notation (JSON).)


K. K-means Clustering, K-nearest Neighbors, and K-fold Cross-Validation


K-means Clustering



  • 16-year-old: K-means clustering is a way to group similar things together. In AI, it helps find patterns and structure in data by dividing it into groups based on how close the data points are to each other.

  • Developer: K-means clustering is an unsupervised machine learning algorithm that partitions a dataset into K distinct clusters based on the similarity or distance between data points. It's used in AI to discover underlying patterns or structure within data.


(Citation: Lloyd, S. (1982). Least squares quantization in PCM. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 28(2), 129-137.)


K-nearest Neighbors



  • 16-year-old: K-nearest neighbors is a method that helps AI systems make decisions by looking at the closest examples it already knows. For example, if you want to know if a movie is good or bad, you could ask the opinion of your closest friends who have seen it.

  • Developer: K-nearest neighbors (KNN) is a supervised machine learning algorithm that classifies new data points based on the majority label of its K closest neighbors in the training dataset. It's used for classification, regression, and instance-based learning tasks in AI.


(Citation: Altman, N. S. (1992). An introduction to kernel and nearest-neighbor nonparametric regression. The American Statistician, 46(3), 175-185.)


K-fold Cross-Validation



  • 16-year-old: K-fold cross-validation is a way to test how well an AI system can make predictions by dividing the data into smaller parts and taking turns using each part for testing while the others are for training.

  • Developer: K-fold cross-validation is a technique used to assess the performance of a machine learning model by partitioning the dataset into K equal-sized subsets, training the model on K-1 subsets, and validating it on the remaining subset, iterating through all subsets.


(Citation: Kohavi, R. (1995). A study of cross-validation and bootstrap for accuracy estimation and model selection. In IJCAI (Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 1137-1145).)


L. Latent Variables, Loss Function, and LSTM


Latent Variables



  • 16-year-old: Latent variables are hidden factors that affect the data we observe but can't be directly measured. In AI, they help explain patterns in the data and make better predictions.

  • Developer: Latent variables are unobservable variables that influence observable data and are inferred indirectly through their relationships with other variables. In AI, they're used to model complex relationships, particularly in generative models like variational autoencoders.


(Citation: Blei, D. M., Ng, A. Y., & Jordan, M. I. (2003). Latent dirichlet allocation. Journal of Machine Learning Research, 3(Jan), 993-1022.)


Loss Function



  • 16-year-old: A loss function is like a scorecard for an AI system, showing how well it's doing. The goal is to minimize the score (or loss) by making better predictions.

  • Developer: A loss function is a mathematical representation of the difference between the predicted and true values in a machine learning model, used to guide the optimization of the model's parameters during training by minimizing the loss.


(Citation: Goodfellow, I., Bengio, Y., & Courville, A. (2016). Deep Learning. MIT Press.)


Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM)



  • 16-year-old: LSTMs are a type of AI that can remember and use information from the past to make decisions. They're especially good at understanding things that happen over time, like language or music.

  • Developer: LSTM is a type of recurrent neural network (RNN) architecture that addresses the vanishing gradient problem in traditional RNNs by using specialized memory cells and gating mechanisms, enabling the model to learn long-term dependencies in sequential data.


(Citation: Hochreiter, S., & Schmidhuber, J. (1997). Long short-term memory. Neural computation, 9(8), 1735-1780.)


M. Machine Learning, Markov Chain, and Multilayer Perceptron


Machine Learning



  • 16-year-old: Machine learning is a way for computers to learn from data and make decisions without being specifically programmed to do so. It's a big part of AI and helps create systems that can do things like recognize images, translate languages, or play games.

  • Developer: Machine learning is a subset of AI that focuses on developing algorithms and statistical models that enable computers to learn from and make predictions or decisions based on data, rather than being explicitly programmed for specific tasks.


(Citation: Mitchell, T. M. (1997). Machine Learning. McGraw Hill.)


Markov Chain



  • 16-year-old: A Markov chain is a way to predict the future based on the current state, without considering what happened before. In AI, it helps model simple sequences, like generating random text or simulating a game.

  • Developer: A Markov chain is a stochastic process that models sequences of events with the property that the probability of the next state depends only on the current state, not on the previous states. In AI, it's used for simple sequence generation and modeling.


(Citation: Norris, J. R. (1998). Markov Chains. Cambridge University Press.)


Multilayer Perceptron



  • 16-year-old: A multilayer perceptron is a type of AI system that can recognize complex patterns by processing information through multiple layers of connected nodes or "neurons," similar to how our brains work.

  • Developer: A multilayer perceptron (MLP) is a feedforward artificial neural network that consists of multiple layers of interconnected nodes or neurons, using nonlinear activation functions to learn and model complex patterns in data.


(Citation: Rumelhart, D. E., Hinton, G. E., & Williams, R. J. (1986). Learning representations by back-propagating errors. Nature, 323(6088), 533-536.)


N. Natural Language Processing, Neural Networks, and Normalization


Natural Language Processing (NLP)



  • 16-year-old: Natural language processing is a part of AI that helps computers understand, interpret, and generate human languages, like turning spoken words into text or answering questions in a chatbot.

  • Developer: Natural language processing is a subfield of AI and linguistics that focuses on the interaction between computers and human languages, enabling machines to understand, interpret, and generate text or spoken language.


(Citation: Jurafsky, D., & Martin, J. H. (2019). Speech and Language Processing. Pearson.)


Neural Networks



  • 16-year-old: Neural networks are AI systems inspired by the way our brains work, with many small parts called "neurons" working together to process information and make decisions.

  • Developer: Neural networks are a class of machine learning models inspired by biological neural networks, consisting of interconnected nodes or neurons that process and transmit information, enabling the model to learn complex patterns and make predictions.


(Citation: McCulloch, W. S., & Pitts, W. (1943). A logical calculus of the ideas immanent in nervous activity. The bulletin of mathematical biophysics, 5(4), 115-133.)


Normalization



  • 16-year-old: Normalization is a way to make data more consistent and easier to understand by changing it so that all values are on a similar scale. In AI, it helps systems learn more effectively by reducing the differences between data points.

  • Developer: Normalization is a preprocessing technique in which the features of a dataset are transformed or scaled to a common range or distribution, improving the convergence and performance of machine learning algorithms during training.


(Citation: Ioffe, S., & Szegedy, C. (2015). Batch normalization: Accelerating deep network training by reducing internal covariate shift. In International Conference on Machine Learning (pp. 448-456).)


O. Overfitting, Optimization, and Object Detection


Overfitting



  • 16-year-old: Overfitting happens when an AI system learns too much from its training data and becomes too specific, making it less accurate when dealing with new, unseen data. It's like memorizing answers for a test instead of understanding the concepts.

  • Developer: Overfitting is a phenomenon in machine learning where a model learns the noise or random fluctuations in the training data, resulting in poor generalization performance on unseen or new data due to excessive complexity or insufficient regularization.


(Citation: Hawkins, D. M. (2004). The problem of overfitting. Journal of Chemical Information and Computer Sciences, 44(1), 1-12.)


Optimization



  • 16-year-old: Optimization is the process of fine-tuning an AI system to make it as good as possible. It involves adjusting its settings or "knobs" to minimize errors and make better predictions.

  • Developer: Optimization is the process of finding the best set of parameters for a machine learning model by minimizing the loss function, typically using techniques like gradient descent or evolutionary algorithms.


(Citation: Ruder, S. (2016). An overview of gradient descent optimization algorithms. arXiv preprint arXiv:1609.04747.)


Object Detection



  • 16-year-old: Object detection is when an AI system can find and identify objects in images or videos, like recognizing a cat in a picture or counting the number of people in a crowd.

  • Developer: Object detection is a computer vision task that involves locating and identifying objects within images or videos, using machine learning techniques such as convolutional neural networks (CNNs) or region-based methods.


(Citation: Girshick, R., Donahue, J., Darrell, T., & Malik, J. (2014). Rich feature hierarchies for accurate object detection and semantic segmentation. In Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (pp. 580-587).)


P. Principal Component Analysis, Preprocessing, and Perceptron


Principal Component Analysis (PCA)



  • 16-year-old: PCA is a way to simplify complex data by finding the most important parts and ignoring the less important ones. In AI, it helps reduce the amount of data the system needs to process and makes learning faster.

  • Developer: Principal Component Analysis is a dimensionality reduction technique that linearly transforms the original features of a dataset into a new set of uncorrelated features, preserving the most significant variance while reducing noise or redundancy.


(Citation: Jolliffe, I. T. (2002). Principal Component Analysis. Springer-Verlag.)


Preprocessing



  • 16-year-old: Preprocessing is like cleaning up and organizing data before feeding it to an AI system, making it easier for the system to learn and understand the data.

  • Developer: Preprocessing is the process of transforming, cleaning, or normalizing raw data before inputting it into a machine learning model, improving the efficiency, convergence, and performance of the learning process.


(Citation: Bengio, Y., & Grandvalet, Y. (2004). No unbiased estimator of the variance of k-fold cross-validation. Journal of Machine Learning Research, 5(Sep), 1089-1105.)


Perceptron



  • 16-year-old: A perceptron is a simple type of AI system that can make decisions based on a few inputs, like deciding if a picture is of a cat or a dog based on the colors and shapes it sees.

  • Developer: A perceptron is a binary linear classifier that uses a linear combination of input features and a threshold function to make predictions, serving as the basis for more complex artificial neural networks.


(Citation: Rosenblatt, F. (1958). The perceptron: A probabilistic model for information storage and organization in the brain. Psychological Review, 65(6), 386-408.)


Q. Q-Learning, Quadratic Loss, and Quantization


Q-Learning



  • 16-year-old: Q-Learning is a way for AI systems to learn by trying different actions and remembering which ones led to better results. It's used to teach AI to play games or navigate through environments by learning from experience.

  • Developer: Q-Learning is a model-free reinforcement learning algorithm that learns an optimal action-selection policy by estimating the expected future rewards for taking actions in specific states, based on iterative updates of Q-values.


(Citation: Watkins, C. J., & Dayan, P. (1992). Q-learning. Machine Learning, 8(3-4), 279-292.)


Quadratic Loss



  • 16-year-old: Quadratic loss is a way to measure how far off an AI system's predictions are from the true values by squaring the differences. It's used to help AI systems learn by minimizing these squared errors.

  • Developer: Quadratic loss, also known as mean squared error (MSE), is a loss function that calculates the average of the squared differences between the predicted and true values, aiming to minimize the sum of these squared errors during model optimization.


(Citation: Bishop, C. M. (2006). Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning. Springer.)


Quantization



  • 16-year-old: Quantization is a way to make AI systems smaller and faster by approximating the numbers used in the system, like rounding off decimals to whole numbers. This can help AI run on devices with limited resources, like smartphones.

  • Developer: Quantization is a technique for compressing and reducing the precision of weights and activations in neural networks, trading off some accuracy for reduced memory footprint and computational complexity, enabling deployment on resource-constrained devices.


(Citation: Rastegari, M., Ordonez, V., Redmon, J., & Farhadi, A. (2016). XNOR-Net: ImageNet classification using binary convolutional neural networks. In European Conference on Computer Vision (pp. 525-542). Springer, Cham.)


R. Reinforcement Learning, Random Forest, and Recurrent Neural Networks


Reinforcement Learning



  • 16-year-old: Reinforcement learning is a type of AI where the system learns by trial and error, getting feedback in the form of rewards or penalties. It's used to teach AI to play games, control robots, or make decisions in complex situations.

  • Developer: Reinforcement learning is a subfield of machine learning that focuses on training agents to make decisions by interacting with an environment, receiving feedback in the form of rewards or penalties, and learning an optimal policy to maximize cumulative rewards.


(Citation: Sutton, R. S., & Barto, A. G. (2018). Reinforcement Learning: An Introduction. MIT Press.)


Random Forest



  • 16-year-old: A random forest is a way to make AI systems more accurate by combining the results of many smaller decision-making systems, like asking a group of people for their opinions and then averaging them to get a better overall answer.

  • Developer: Random forest is an ensemble learning method that constructs multiple decision trees during training and combines their predictions by averaging (for regression) or majority vote (for classification), increasing model robustness and reducing overfitting.


(Citation: Breiman, L. (2001). Random forests. Machine Learning, 45(1), 5-32.)


Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN)



  • 16-year-old: RNNs are a type of AI system that can remember information from the past and use it to make decisions. They're good at understanding things that happen over time, like language or music.

  • Developer: Recurrent neural networks are a class of artificial neural networks that contain connections between nodes that form directed cycles, allowing them to maintain internal state and process sequences of inputs, making them suitable for modeling temporal or sequential data.


(Citation: Elman, J. L. (1990). Finding structure in time. Cognitive Science, 14(2), 179-211.)


S. Supervised Learning, Support Vector Machines, and Stochastic Gradient Descent


Supervised Learning



  • 16-year-old: Supervised learning is a type of AI where the system learns from examples with known answers, like teaching a student by showing them the correct way to solve a problem. It's used for tasks like image recognition, language translation, and predicting outcomes.

  • Developer: Supervised learning is a machine learning paradigm that uses labeled training data, consisting of input-output pairs, to learn a function or model that can make predictions or decisions on unseen data.


(Citation: Hastie, T., Tibshirani, R., & Friedman, J. (2009). The Elements of Statistical Learning: Data Mining, Inference, and Prediction. Springer Science & Business Media.)


Support Vector Machines (SVM)



  • 16-year-old: Support Vector Machines are a type of AI system that can separate data into different categories by finding the best dividing line or surface. They're used for tasks like recognizing handwriting or deciding if an email is spam or not.

  • Developer: Support Vector Machines are a class of supervised learning algorithms that construct hyperplanes or decision boundaries in high-dimensional space, maximizing the margin between different classes of data, providing robust and accurate classification or regression.


(Citation: Cortes, C., & Vapnik, V. (1995). Support-vector networks. Machine Learning, 20(3), 273-297.)


Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD)



  • 16-year-old: Stochastic Gradient Descent is a way to improve AI systems by taking small steps in the direction that reduces errors the most. It's like finding the lowest point in a valley by always walking downhill.

  • Developer: Stochastic Gradient Descent is an optimization algorithm used for minimizing the loss function in machine learning models by iteratively updating the model's parameters based on a random subset or mini-batch of the training data, providing faster convergence compared to batch gradient descent.


(Citation: Bottou, L. (2010). Large-scale machine learning with stochastic gradient descent. In Proceedings of COMPSTAT'2010 (pp. 177-186). Springer, Heidelberg.)


T. Transfer Learning, Temporal-Difference Learning, and Transformer


Transfer Learning



  • 16-year-old: Transfer learning is a way for AI systems to learn new tasks by building on what they already know, like how you can learn to play a new instrument faster if you already know how to play another one. It saves time and resources by reusing knowledge from previous tasks.

  • Developer: Transfer learning is a machine learning technique where a pretrained model, typically a neural network, is fine-tuned or adapted for a new but related task, leveraging knowledge from the original task to improve learning efficiency and performance on the new task.


(Citation: Pan, S. J., & Yang, Q. (2010). A survey on transfer learning. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, 22(10), 1345-1359.)



Temporal-Difference Learning



  • 16-year-old: Temporal-Difference learning is a way for AI systems to learn from their experiences by comparing predictions made at different times, helping them make better decisions in the future. It's often used in reinforcement learning to teach AI to play games or navigate environments.

  • Developer: Temporal-Difference (TD) learning is a model-free reinforcement learning method that combines ideas from Monte Carlo methods and dynamic programming, learning from the difference between consecutive predictions to update value estimates and improve decision-making.


(Citation: Sutton, R. S. (1988). Learning to predict by the methods of temporal differences. Machine Learning, 3(1), 9-44.)


U. Unsupervised Learning, Underfitting, and Universal Approximation Theorem


Unsupervised Learning



  • 16-year-old: Unsupervised learning is a type of AI where the system learns by finding patterns in data without being given specific examples or answers. It's like discovering the structure of a puzzle without knowing what the final image should look like.

  • Developer: Unsupervised learning is a machine learning paradigm that seeks to discover hidden patterns, structures, or relationships in unlabeled data, using techniques such as clustering, dimensionality reduction, or density estimation.


(Citation: Hinton, G. E., & Sejnowski, T. J. (1999). Unsupervised Learning: Foundations of Neural Computation. MIT Press.)


Underfitting



  • 16-year-old: Underfitting happens when an AI system doesn't learn enough from its training data, making it too simple and less accurate. It's like not studying enough for a test and not understanding the concepts well enough to answer the questions.

  • Developer: Underfitting is a phenomenon in machine learning where a model fails to capture the underlying structure or complexity of the training data, resulting in poor performance on both training and unseen data due to oversimplification or insufficient model capacity.


(Citation: Domingos, P. (2000). A unified bias-variance decomposition and its applications. In Proceedings of the Seventeenth International Conference on Machine Learning (pp. 231-238).)


Universal Approximation Theorem



  • 16-year-old: The Universal Approximation Theorem says that some types of AI systems, like neural networks, can learn to approximate any function or pattern, no matter how complicated it is, as long as they have enough layers or neurons.

  • Developer: The Universal Approximation Theorem states that feedforward artificial neural networks with a single hidden layer and a finite number of neurons, using nonlinear activation functions, are capable of approximating any continuous function on compact subsets of R^n, given sufficient network complexity.


(Citation: Hornik, K., Stinchcombe, M., & White, H. (1989). Multilayer feedforward networks are universal approximators. Neural Networks, 2(5), 359-366.)


V. Validation, Variational Autoencoder, and Vector Quantization


Validation



  • 16-year-old: Validation is a way to test how well an AI system works by checking its predictions or decisions against a separate set of data that it hasn't seen before. It helps make sure the system is accurate and not just memorizing the training data.

  • Developer: Validation is the process of evaluating the performance of a machine learning model on a separate dataset, not used during training, to assess the model's ability to generalize to unseen data and to prevent overfitting.


(Citation: Kohavi, R. (1995). A study of cross-validation and bootstrap for accuracy estimation and model selection. In Proceedings of the 14th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (pp. 1137-1143).)


Variational Autoencoder (VAE)



  • 16-year-old: Variational Autoencoders are a type of AI system that can learn to create new data that looks like the original data, like generating new images of cats after learning from a bunch of cat pictures. They can also be used to compress or simplify data.

  • Developer: Variational Autoencoders are a class of generative models that combine deep learning and probabilistic graphical modeling to learn a continuous, low-dimensional latent representation of high-dimensional data, enabling data generation, compression, and denoising.


(Citation: Kingma, D. P., & Welling, M. (2013). Auto-Encoding Variational Bayes. arXiv preprint arXiv:1312.6114.)


Vector Quantization



  • 16-year-old: Vector Quantization is a way to simplify or compress data by replacing groups of similar data points with a single representative point. It's like finding an average color for a group of similar colors in an image to save memory.

  • Developer: Vector Quantization is a lossy data compression technique that approximates high-dimensional data points by a finite set of representative codebook vectors, reducing the complexity and size of the data while preserving its essential structure.


(Citation: Gray, R. M. (1984). Vector quantization. IEEE ASSP Magazine, 1(2), 4-29.)


W. Weight Initialization and Word Embeddings


Weight Initialization



  • 16-year-old: Weight initialization is like setting up an AI system before it starts learning by giving it starting values for its "knobs" or settings. Picking good starting values can help the system learn faster and more accurately.

  • Developer: Weight initialization is the process of assigning initial values to the parameters of a machine learning model, such as a neural network, before training. Proper initialization can improve convergence, training speed, and final model performance.


(Citation: Glorot, X., & Bengio, Y. (2010). Understanding the difficulty of training deep feedforward neural networks. In Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics (pp. 249-256).)


Word Embeddings



  • 16-year-old: Word embeddings are a way to represent words as numbers so that AI systems can understand and work with them. These numbers can capture the meaning and relationships between words, making it easier for AI to process language.

  • Developer: Word embeddings are dense vector representations of words in a continuous space that capture semantic and syntactic relationships between words, enabling natural language processing tasks such as text classification, sentiment analysis, and machine translation.


(Citation: Mikolov, T., Chen, K., Corrado, G., & Dean, J. (2013). Efficient estimation of word representations in vector space. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Learning Representations (ICLR).)


XOR Problem



  • 16-year-old: The XOR problem is a challenge that shows the limits of some simple AI systems. It's about teaching an AI to understand an exclusive or (XOR) operation, which can be tricky because it requires the AI to consider more than one input at a time.

  • Developer: The XOR problem highlights the limitations of linear models and single-layer perceptrons in solving non-linearly separable tasks, such as the exclusive or (XOR) operation, which led to the development of multi-layer neural networks and backpropagation for more complex problem-solving.


(Citation: Minsky, M., & Papert, S. (1969). Perceptrons: An Introduction to Computational Geometry. MIT Press.)


XGBoost



  • 16-year-old: XGBoost is a powerful AI tool that can make predictions or decisions based on lots of data, by combining the results of many smaller decision-making systems. It's used in fields like finance, healthcare, and sports to make accurate predictions quickly.

  • Developer: XGBoost (eXtreme Gradient Boosting) is an open-source, scalable, and efficient implementation of the gradient boosting algorithm, which builds an ensemble of weak learners (typically decision trees) in a stage-wise manner, optimizing a differentiable loss function and reducing prediction error.


(Citation: Chen, T., & Guestrin, C. (2016). XGBoost: A Scalable Tree Boosting System. In Proceedings of the 22nd ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining (pp. 785-794).)


Y. YOLO (You Only Look Once), Yann LeCun


YOLO (You Only Look Once)



  • 16-year-old: YOLO is an AI system that can recognize objects in images or videos very quickly, by looking at the whole image at once instead of searching for objects piece by piece. It's used for tasks like self-driving cars, security cameras, and robotics.

  • Developer: YOLO (You Only Look Once) is a real-time object detection algorithm that processes entire images in a single pass through a convolutional neural network, predicting object bounding boxes and class probabilities simultaneously, providing fast and accurate object detection.


(Citation: Redmon, J., Divvala, S., Girshick, R., & Farhadi, A. (2016). You only look once: Unified, real-time object detection. In Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (pp. 779-788).)


YOLO (You Only Look Once)



  • 16-year-old: YOLO is a super-fast way for AI systems to recognize and locate objects in images or videos by looking at the whole picture at once, instead of scanning it bit by bit. It's used in tasks like self-driving cars or security cameras to detect people and objects in real-time.

  • Developer: YOLO is a real-time object detection system that applies a single neural network to the entire image, dividing it into regions and predicting bounding boxes and class probabilities simultaneously, achieving high detection speeds with competitive accuracy.


(Citation: Redmon, J., Divvala, S., Girshick, R., & Farhadi, A. (2016). You only look once: Unified, real-time object detection. In Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (pp. 779-788).)


Z. Zero-Shot Learning, Z-score, and Zone of Proximal Development


Zero-Shot Learning



  • 16-year-old: Zero-shot learning is a way for AI systems to recognize new things they've never seen before by using the knowledge they've learned from other tasks. It's like being able to identify a new animal just by knowing its features, even if you've never seen one before.

  • Developer: Zero-shot learning is a machine learning paradigm that aims to classify or recognize novel categories or instances without any training examples, leveraging semantic information or relationships between known and unknown classes, often represented as attribute vectors or knowledge graphs.


(Citation: Palatucci, M., Pomerleau, D., Hinton, G. E., & Mitchell, T. M. (2009). Zero-shot learning with semantic output codes. In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems (pp. 1410-1418).)


Z-score



  • 16-year-old: A Z-score is a way to measure how far a data point is from the average, in terms of standard deviations. It's used in AI systems to help identify unusual data points or to make sure data is on the same scale when comparing different things.

  • Developer: Z-score, also known as standard score, is a statistical measure that describes a data point's relative distance from the mean of a distribution, expressed in terms of standard deviations. In machine learning, Z-scores are often used for data normalization, outlier detection, and feature scaling.


(Citation: DeGroot, M. H., & Schervish, M. J. (2012). Probability and Statistics (4th ed.). Pearson.)


Zone of Proximal Development



  • 16-year-old: The Zone of Proximal Development is an idea from psychology that says people learn best when they're challenged but not overwhelmed. In AI, this concept can be applied to make systems learn more effectively by giving them tasks that are just hard enough.

  • Developer: The Zone of Proximal Development, originally introduced by psychologist Lev Vygotsky, refers to the range of tasks that are beyond an individual's current abilities but can be learned with guidance or collaboration. In AI and machine learning, this concept can inspire curriculum learning, where models are trained on progressively more challenging tasks to improve overall learning efficiency.


(Citation: Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes. Harvard University Press.)




We hope that this extensive A-Z glossary has provided valuable insights into the world of generative AI, enabling you to develop a more profound understanding of the field. It is essential to note that the content of this glossary was generated using OpenAI's GPT-4, a state-of-the-art language model.


Although we have made every effort to ensure the accuracy of the information presented, there may be some discrepancies or omissions due to the inherent limitations of the AI model.


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Comments (12)
Niroshan Ranapathi
Useful resource for generative AI terms !
Pedro De la nube✪ 🧪
A very complete article, I suppose it will have required a lot of research. good job
Richard Gao
Another word should be "prompt tuning". Basically altering the prompt the user enters in the background to make the results better. It's something we're planning to do with Evoke :)